Listen to the second podcast episode with leading moth observation contributor Rachit Singh, as a part of our interview series leading up to the National Moth Week on July 22

Browse Documents

240 documents found
  • Title
    Decline of suitablehabitats and conservation of the endangered lion-tailed macaque: land-cover change at a proposed protected area in Sirsi– Honnavara, Western Ghats, India
    Type
    Report
    Description
    Habitat fragmentation, lossof habitat and other anthropogenic activities have caused a population decline in many species, caused restriction in their distribution or even led to their local extinction. We attempted to understand the impact of such pressures on the newly identified and possibly the largest population of the endangered lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus in the Reserve Forests of Sirsi and Honnavara, Karnataka, using a temporal series of satellite images. Classified images showed a major increase in open area with a rapid decline in vegetation cover of about 11.5% in the wet evergreen forests over the last decade, amounting to a loss at the rate of 1.9% per year. We thus consider habitat protection and restoration of evergreen forest as the top priority along with the enforcement of conservation steps, including legal action against encroachment, extraction of timber and further fragmentation, to protect this critically important habitat of the lion-tailed macaque.
    Attribution
    Honnavalli N. Kumara , *, N. S. Pritham, K. Santhosh, V. Vijay Mohan Raj and Anindya Sinha
  • Title
    Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth in the rainforests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka
    Type
    Report
    Description
    Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth in the rainforests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka
  • Title
    Distribution, den characteristics and diet of the Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Mammalia: Canidae) in Karnataka, India: preliminary observations
    Type
    Report
    Description
    The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensisinhabits relatively dry areas with scrub thorn forests, deciduous forests, short grasslands and marginal croplands. Since it is a widely distributed species, especially in the dry tracts, very little attention has been paid to it by researchers and wildlife managers. We conducted an extensive survey in the south Indian state of Karnataka to determine the conservation status of the Indian Fox. We also carried out a more detailed observation in a small region called “Jayamangali Blackbuck Block” (JBB) and surrounding private lands to study the den site characteristics of the species. Except for a few districts in the Western Ghats and the west coastal region, the fox was present throughout Karnataka. Relatively higher encounter rates were observed in regions with extensive grasslands. We located 52 dens during the study in JBB which provide a minimum of 12dens/km2 with 1.33/km2 active dens. Circumference of den sites were smaller in JBB than in the adjoining private lands indicating that foxes frequently shifted dens in this area. The number of openings and active openings increased as the circumference of the den site increased. Fecal analysis revealed remains of certain species of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods as the major food items of the fox.
    Attribution
    Honnavalli N. Kumara and Mewa Singh
  • Title
    Diversity and management of wild mammals in tea gardens in the rainforest regions of the Western Ghats, India: A case study from a tea estate in the Anaimalai Hills
    Type
    Report
    Description
    In many places in the Western Ghats hill ranges ofsouthern India, rainforest has been clear-felled in orderto grow tea plantations. Such plantations now exist as islands of agriculture surrounded by forest tracts, most of which are protected as wildlife sanctuaries. Wereport a case study from one such tea garden. We observed a diversity of wild mammals, both herbivores and carnivores, usingopen grass patches, swamps andvegetation along streams in the tea gar den. Largemammals were observed to forage in such areas andreturn to the adjoining forests. Small mammals wereeither resident or used stream vegetation as a corridor to move from oneside of the forest to the opposite side. Dhole (Cuon alpinus) often preyed on sambar (Cervus unicolor) and even denned twice in the estate. We also observed a minimal human–animal conflict in the area. Problems such as stealing of meat from sambar killsmade by dhole, could be overcome by awareness. We propose that such areas can be effectively managedsuch that it could facilitate movement of wild mammals with least damage to the commercial activity related to tea. Such a wildlife management strategy canbecome a model that could be followed in tea-growing areas throughout the Western Ghats.
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara, M. Ananda Kumar, A. K. Sharma, H. S. Sushma, Mridula Singh and Mewa Singh
  • Title
    Distribution, status and conservation of primates of the Western Ghats
    Type
    Report
    Description
    Distribution, status and conservation of primates of the Western Ghats
    Attribution
    Honnavalli N. Kumara and Mewa Singh
  • Title
    The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis Nigriceps: Are they disappearing In Karnataka?
    Type
    Report
    Description
    This note gives an account of the earlier records and recent observations on Bustard sightings by the authors
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara and V Vijay Mohan Raj
  • Title
    The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis Nigriceps: Are they disappearing In Karnataka?
    Type
    Report
    Description
    This note gives an account of the earlier records and recent observations on Bustard sightings by the authors
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara and V Vijay Mohan Raj
  • Title
    Conservation status of wild mammals in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, the Western Ghats, India
    Type
    Report
    Description
    For proper management of a wildlife reserve, it is essential to get estimates of occurrence, abundance, density and biomass of herbivores that in turn determine the density of carnivores. The Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (BRT WLS) is a critical conservation region as it is a living bridge between the Eastern and the Western Ghats of southern India. We made repeated walks of 795.5 km on 33 random line transects covering a total distance of 93 km in the sanctuary. During these walks, we recorded the sightings of herbivores using rangefinder, compass and GPS. We also surveyed the sanctuary driving a jeep during nights to detect typically nocturnal mammals. We analysed the data using DISTANCE software. We recorded 31 species of herbivores and the density of these species differed among habitats that included evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous and scrub forests. Several nocturnal species, including elusive small cats were sighted. We found that leaving out elephants, the herbivore biomass in BRT WLS was 4,127.82 kg/km2. This places BRT among some of the herbivore-rich wildlife reserves in the country. We recommend that BRT be notified as a Tiger Reserve.
    Attribution
    Honnavalli N. Kumara, S. Rathnakumar, R. Sasi and M. Singh
  • Title
    Estimating Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, density through distance sampling in the tropical forests of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, India
    Type
    Report
    Description
    To determine abundance, density and distribution of wild animals, it is crucial to estimate populations using reliable sampling techniques. In most earlier studies, elephant populations were estimated employing block counts or dung counts, which provide biased estimates due to limitations of the methods. We estimated an Asian elephant population using distance sampling, a quantitatively robust technique, in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a critical elephant conservation area in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in south India. We laid 33 transects with a total length of 93 km. We walked these transects five to 11 times amounting to a total of 795.5 km of walks. We collected data on location, number and age-sex classes through direct elephant sightings, using rangefinders, global positioning systems and compass. We used DISTANCE software for analysis. We estimated per km2cluster density as 0.69 elephant herds, mean cluster size as 2.44, and elephant density as 1.7 animals. This amounts to a total of 713 elephants in 610 km2of the sanctuary. A high percentage of males less than 30 years old and a low immature:adult female ratio indicated the severity of poaching in the recent past in the study region.
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara, S. Rathnakumar , M. Ananda Kumar and M. Singh.
  • Title
    Male Influx, Infanticide, and Female Transfer inMacaca radiata radiata
    Type
    Report
    Description
    In bonnet macaques, males usually disperse between groups and females remain philopatric, but researchers have reported female transfer. We reporta rare case of male influx during the mating season in our bonnet macaquestudy group in the Anaimalai Hills. The density of bonnet macaques in thestudy region was unusually high. The study group had a single, crippled adultmale with a long tenure and 5 adult females. During the mating season, adult females approached and mated with outgroup males, and then several malesentered the group. The adult male left the group without any resistance. Theincoming males mated with 3 receptive females, forcibly mated with 2 lactating females, and attacked and killed 2 infants. During the influx, 2 outgroup females joined the group. The data suggest that male influxes providean opportunity for infanticide and female transfer, which can have importantfitness consequences even in species in which they rarely occur.
    Attribution
    Mewa Singh, H. N. Kumara, M. Ananda Kumar, Mridula Singh, and Matthew Cooper
  • Title
    Distribution, abundance, group size and demography of dark-bellied bonnet macaque Macaca radiata radiata in Karnataka, South India
    Type
    Report
    Description
    We carried out an extensive survey on bonnet macaques in the south Indian state of Karnataka over a period of five years. We travelled 9697 km covering all districts and recorded the distribution, encounter rate and demographic features of bonnet macaque groups on roadsides and villages, temples and several different forest types, and walked1736 km in selected Protected Areas and Reserve Forests. Bonnet macaque groups were encountered ata rate of 2.11 groups/ 100 km in a road survey. Encounter rates were high in the districts of Chamarajanagar, Shimoga, Bangalore, Kolar, Kodagu and Mysore. Encounter rates were higher in wet evergreen forests than in deciduous forests. Mean group size was highest in human habitations followed by deciduous forests, roadsides and evergreen forests. The groups in highly provisioned places had the highest size compared to medium or low degree of provisioning. Age–sex ratios were observed to be the same in all habitat types. We propose that large-scale surveys of the present type provide baseline data for long-term management and conservation of a species.
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara , Mewa Singh , Shanthala Kumar and Anindya Sinha
  • Title
    Workshop presentation poster
    Type
    Report
    Attribution
    ACT India Foundation